U.N. group condemns mass incarceration, drug war, “human rights crisis” of police killings; calls for reparations
A detailed report by a United Nations group has harshly condemned the many forms of structural racism black Americans face in the United States, and called for reparations for centuries of enslavement, segregation and discrimination.
The U.S. government is “not acting with due diligence to protect the rights of African Americans,” the group said. It called for more thorough civil rights laws, and encouraged the government to create a national plan to comprehensively address racism.
“There is a profound need to acknowledge that the transatlantic trade in Africans, enslavement, colonization and colonialism were a crime against humanity and are among the major sources and manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, Afrophobia, xenophobia and related intolerance,” the U.N. group stressed. “Past injustices and crimes against African Americans need to be addressed with reparatory justice.”
These recommendations were made in a recent report by the U.N. Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent. This group is made up of prominent human rights advocates and lawyers from around the world.
Despite some gradual gains over the decades, the working group cautioned that it “remains extremely concerned about the human rights situation of African Americans.” Its report continued: “In particular, the legacy of colonial history, enslavement, racial subordination and segregation, racial terrorism and racial inequality in the United States remains a serious challenge, as there has been no real commitment to reparations and to truth and reconciliation for people of African descent.”
Since civil rights activists pressured the government to abolish Jim Crow segregation in the 1960s, the U.N. group said, “a systemic ideology of racism ensuring the domination of one group over another continues to impact negatively on the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of African Americans today.”
This new systemic racism manifests itself in numerous forms, through police brutality, mass incarceration, extreme poverty and drastically inequitable access to resources and social services.
The report criticized what it called “the epidemic of racial violence by the police.” The U.N. group recommended “urgent action” on the issue, noting, “Contemporary police killings and the trauma that they create are reminiscent of the past racial terror of lynching.”
“Impunity for State violence has resulted in the current human rights crisis and must be addressed as a matter of urgency,” the report said. It described lynching as “a form of racial terrorism that has contributed to a legacy of racial inequality that the United States must address.”
Mass incarceration, the group furthermore noted, is “considered a system of racial control that operate[s] in a similar way to how Jim Crow laws once operated.”
“The devastating impact of the ‘War on Drugs’ has led to mass incarceration and is compared by African Americans to enslavement, due to the exploitation and dehumanization of African Americans,” it added.
The U.N. Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent visited the U.S. from January 19 to 29, 2016. They visited several major cities, including New York, Chicago, Baltimore, Washington and Jackson, Mississippi. They also met with government officials from various departments at the federal and state level.
Some U.S. officials with whom the group requested to meet did not do so. It was also not given access to Mississippi State Penitentiary, which the group noted “undermines the responsibility of the United States to cooperate with the United Nations human rights mechanisms.” It called for the U.S. government to allow independent monitoring of places of detention.
Police violence and bias in the criminal justice system are some of the most critical issues addressed in the U.N. report. Black Americans “are disproportionately targeted for police surveillance, and experience and witness public harassment, excessive force and racial discrimination,” the group said, adding, “Racial profiling is a rampant practice.”
It cited the Department of Justice report on the racially biased policing practices in Ferguson, Missouri, as an example of this institutional discrimination.
The U.N. group expressed deep concern “at the alarming levels of police brutality and excessive use of lethal force by law enforcement officials, committed with impunity against people of African descent in the United States.”
The report cited the killings of unarmed black Americans such as Eric Garner, Michael Brown, Tamir Rice, Walter Scott, Freddie Gray and Laquan McDonald, and noted that police officers have rarely “been held accountable for these crimes, despite the evidence.”
It also criticized the lack of an official national system in the U.S. that documents police killings. Federal authorities said the absence of this system is largely because the country’s 18,000 police departments and law enforcement agencies are not required to report killings.
The group said it “welcomes the growing human rights movement in the United States,” recognizing the efforts of civil-society networks like Black Lives Matter.
It called for the development of policing strategies that “give the community control of the police.” The report recommended that communities make boards that approve and elect police officers.
Yet “killings of unarmed African Americans by the police is only the tip of the iceberg in what is a pervasive racial bias in the justice system,” the group emphasized.
The U.N. working group linked mass incarceration to the War on Drugs. “Mass incarceration has had a disproportionately high impact on people of African descent,” it noted. Citing the book “The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Color Blindness,” by the legal scholar Michelle Alexander, it pointed out that “tough-on-crime” laws and drug laws “have been applied with a racial bias, with deep collateral damage on African Americans.”
“The costs of mass incarceration practices must be measured in human lives — particularly the generations of young black men and women who serve long prison sentences and are lost to their families and to society at large,” the report said.
While crime rates have decreased in the U.S., the prison population has “soared,” the group observed. Black Americans, who make up just over 14 percent of the population, are vastly overrepresented, accounting for 36 percent of federal and state prisoners. Black men are incarcerated at a rate 5.9 times higher than that of white men.
Americans of color are thrust into this system in an early age. Thousands of young black Americans are detained for wrongdoing, the working group noted, “without addressing the root causes of crime, guaranteeing better security to the communities where they lived or offering them effective rehabilitation.”
From an early age, black Americans “are treated by the State as a dangerous criminal group and face a presumption of guilt rather than of innocence,” the report said.
Moreover, when formerly incarcerated people return to their communities, they often continue to face “serious disadvantages,” the group added, which follow them for the rest of their lives. Some re-entry programs do exist, but they are often “not well funded,” and do not exist nationwide.
Some federal and state authorities acknowledged to the U.N. working group that mass incarceration “has been ineffective.”
Inside prisons, conditions are even worse, the group indicated. It expressed concerns about “inadequate conditions of detention” and “serious barriers in accessing health treatment, including mental health treatment.”
It also noted that black Americans are significantly more likely than white Americans to face severe punishments, especially the death penalty.
Solitary confinement is an “extensive practice” in U.S. prisons, the report noted, and black Americans are more likely than whites to be put in solitary confinement.